Is bladder cancer gender dimorphic?
- Only 25% of bladder cancer (BCa) patients are female, males are 3-4X more likely to develop BCa.
- While women have a lower risk of developing BCa, BCa is often more aggressive in women. Compared to men, bladder cancer-specific survival for women is 50% lower at every stage4.
- The cause of the gender differences in incidence and aggressiveness of BCa is not known.
- Epidemiologic associations have also identified hormonal status related to menopause as a risk factor to develop BCa in women; the median age of diagnosis for women with BCa is 68 years, and most women are post-menopausal.
- Conversely, early menopause in women is associated with a 30-40% increased risk of developing BCa cancer
- This suggests that hormonally regulated differences in tumor initiation may prevent bladder cancer in younger women but are associated with worse outcomes in postmenopausal women.